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Alcohol Dependence

A primary, Chronic Disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The Disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over Drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in Thinking, most notably Denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)